The First West Coast Trip by Automobile – 1912

First West Coast Trip by Automobile

This is a great story that conveys the challenges of travelling from California to Portland Oregon in and automobile in 1912. Along the way the travelers were mired in mud, forded a river, were blocked by fallen trees and endured snow and ice. All while camping along the way, in their hats and suits.

In this modern day and age we’re used to paved roads to most any destination that we might have in mind to travel to. There aren’t many people who remember the days prior to the coast to coast interstate system that was built in the 1950’s these days let alone the old days of rural dirt roads or horse trails.

In 1912 many of the larger cities had started to pave their streets but once you left the city you were most likely sharing a dirt road with a horse and wagon. At that time not many people beyond the affluent had an automobile, and not many of them took their cars outside of the city in which they lived.

The automobiles of 1912 were quite primitive and troublesome and weren’t relied upon for long distance travel. Automobiles had been around for a couple of decades but were rare. The Ford Model T had only been built for three years and had yet to catch fire completely with the working man.

The concept of an interstate road or a maintained highway had not quite been thought necessary.  The cities had yet to be connected essentially. Loading up your wagon, hitching up the horse and travelling from Los Angeles to Portland was not so common. Most folks took a stage, ship or, in most cases, a train.

In 1912 Portland Oregon hosted the Elks Club National Convention. Back then it was a big deal. Portland businesses came together with activities and events to entertain the attendees. People from all over the country came to Portland to attend, most all using conventional and practical transportation, but there were others who decided to take their own road and their own transportation. Four men walked from Brookfield Missouri claiming a trip of over 2200 miles. It took them over three months.

At the same time three men struck out from an unknown city (Not mentioned in the notes included with the photographs) in California toward Portland Oregon in a 1912 Haynes touring car. Claiming to be the “1st men to drive from California to Portland”. Frank Morehead, Charlie McClower, John Roger Wood were off on an adventure if the photos are any evidence at all.

Although not verified that they’re the first to drive the west coast in a car, they are certainly some of the first and these photographs give an idea of what it must have been like.

I acquired the photos in an eBay auction. They came from a scrapbook in an estate sale in Michigan. I collect antique photographs so I bid on them and won the auction. The photos came with a short description but no details. There is no information that I’m able to find on the web. I thought that I would share them here.

On the way to Portland
On the way to Portland
Taking a break
Taking a break
Camping along the road
Camping along the road
A muddy road
A muddy road
A typical road
A typical road
Camping in pine trees
Camping in pine trees
Fording a river
Fording a river
Camp Rhein
Camp Rhein
Cutting a tree from the road
Cutting a tree from the road
A visitor and his horse and wagon
A visitor and his horse and wagon
Stuck in the mud
Stuck in the mud
A snowy forest road
A snowy forest road
Cattle in the road
Cattle in the road
A snowy forest road
A snowy forest road
Willamette River Falls Oregon City
Willamette River Falls Oregon City
In Portland Oregon
In Portland Oregon
Note on back of photo
Note on back of photo
Haynes Automobile
Haynes Automobile

All photos copyright Gary Randall

The Oregon Ark Motel

April 17, 1985. The Oregon Ark Motel.

“Richard Lightbody, owner of Oregon Ark Motel, puts final touches on “ark” he is building out of bender boards, even though area has had fewer than 40 days of rain a year. He said ark was not meant to save souls but to attract attention to his motel on U.S. 26, which he has owned since June.”

Murder on Mount Hood

Murder on Mount Hood

Perry Vickers
Perry Vickers

When one thinks of Mount Hood they don’t usually think of crime, especially such severe crime as murder, but there’s one story that is a part of Mount Hood’s past that should be told.

The Oregon Trail had been active for about 40 years, with the Barlow Road becoming the main route to the Willamette Valley. The Barlow Road was a toll road with toll gates placed on the route to gather toll from the travelers. One toll gate keeper will be remembered as an integral part of Mount Hood’s cultural history.

Government Camp
Government Camp

Perry Vickers was one of the first residents of the south side of Mount Hood, an area that today includes the little ski town of Government Camp. He was well liked by everyone in the area especially those who were passing over the south side of Mount Hood on the Barlow Road road in their wagons. He had squatters rights at Summit Meadow, a natural clearing at the top of the pass as the road began to descend the west slope of Mount Hood and the last stretch before arriving at their destination in the Willamette Valley from points east. He built the first travelers accommodations in the area when he built the Summit House in Summit Meadow. He had a corralled field for grazing the stock as well as a series of buildings including a lodge, a store and barns.

Rhododendron Tollgate
Rhododendron Tollgate

During his time on Mount Hood Portland grew exponentially with the new settlers that poured into the Oregon country. A trend was to return to the mountain that held so many challenges to them and their families during the immigration to recreate. Perry Vickers was Mount Hood’s first climbing guide. Hiking and climbing the peak was very popular at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. He was an enthusiastic promoter of early visitation and recreation on Mount Hood. He even created a tradition of illuminating the mountain by carrying fuel for a large fire near what is now known as Illumination Rock. He is attributed with being the first person to spend a night on the top of Mount Hood.

Perry Vickers was described as a dreamer and a poet. The Oregon Historical Society has some of his verses of sunrises and sunsets and of his beloved mountain. He didn’t start out his residence in Oregon on quite a solid footing. His early days here are said to have been troublesome. Perry Vickers arrived in Vancouver Washington in 1865. As he was looking for work he fell into the company of three other young strangers in a seemingly similar situation. As it turned out their situation was somewhat different than his.

As he was in the company of his three new friends military officers from Fort Vancouver arrested the group and charged them with horse theft, quite a serious crime back then. They were held for about two months as they awaited trial, each wearing what was referred to as an “Oregon Boot”, a seven pound iron clevis that was worn on an ankle to impede any progress of escape similar to a steel ball and chain.

As they were arrested together, held together in the same cell, and although unsure of the guilt of his cellmates, he was sure that he would be found guilty by association. He felt that he needed to escape. Their cell was made of wood and so in time the method was created for the break out. Several 2″x4″ wooden window bars were removed and the group escaped into the night. Once Vickers was away he separated from his undesirable companions as he heard activity indicating that their escape had been discovered. Still weighted down by his Oregon Boot, he stumbled his way away from the fort toward the Columbia River. The sounds of those in pursuit became louder and he soon found himself about to be surrounded as he stood on the bank of the river.

His ankle was becoming chaffed and and painful and he tried for a moment to find a way to pry off the iron implement around his ankle. As the sounds of pursuit became louder he knew that he had only one choice, to attempt to swim the mile wide and swift Columbia River. It’s not sure how he learned to swim, but he indeed made it to the other side still carrying the weight of his seven pound clevis attached to his ankle.

Once  across the river he came across a small farm where he was able to find some tools to remove the iron device. He found an old wagon wheel wrench that he used as a hammer and a bolt to use as a punch to remove the pin that held it together. The next morning he came across some wood cutters who fed him and gave him directions to Powell Valley where his brother lived. Once there his brother gave him clothes and supplies and advised him to head to Eastern Oregon by way of the Barlow Road and seek work until things cooled down for him.

Stephen Coalman
Stephen Coalman

As he headed east he came across Stephen Coalman, the one who was in charge of maintaining the old Barlow Road. He told Vickers that he would be hiring help to clear the road after the Winter storm’s damage. That June he went to work for Coalman, and developed a lifelong friendship. Stephen Coalman and his son Elijah “Lige” Coalman became legendary on Mount Hood for their many adventures. Stephen Coalman had said that through time Vickers proved that his character was not one of a horse thief and was convinced that Vickers was a victim of circumstances.

That June the crew set up camp at Summit Meadow and Vickers took time to explore the area from there to the timberline level of Mount Hood. Thrilled by his hikes he swore that he would climb to the top of the mountain.

Vickers took the job of gatekeeper on the eastern entrance to the old road, away from the chance of being recognized as a fugitive. In time his friend Stephen Coleman persuaded him to return to the west side of Mount Hood, assuring him that if need be he would secure legal services to defend the horse stealing charges if necessary.

Summit Meadow
Summit Meadow

No charges were ever brought against Vickers, but in his trips to the west side he fell in love with the area, especially the area around the summit meadows right under the looming view of the south side of Mount Hood. He envisioned a business. One that would help travelers as they passed through. He filed for a squatter’s claim at Summit Meadow and went to work on the buildings there between his work on the old toll road.

Summit House
Summit House

By 1866 work on the Summit House was underway. It was a large building, 20x20x32 feet with a huge fireplace at one end and sleeping quarters upstairs and spacious cooking arrangements. He built all of the furniture from natural materials. In the Spring of 1868 he opened up the Summit House as soon as the snow melted and the road was cleared. He provided food for travelers as well as their livestock, spaces for camping and in many cases insisting in having folks in for a meal.

An enduring story is told of a day when a group of wagons came to Summit Meadow in 1882. A baby boy from one of the parties, the Barclay family, was ill and died at the meadow. Vickers granted permission for the baby to be buried at the meadow. The little graveyard and headstone are still there today.

Summit Meadow Campers
Summit Meadow Campers

For many years Vickers resided at Summit Meadows and helped countless travelers that passed by and hundreds of people to the top of the mountain, until one day in August of 1893 when a man named Steele, a farm hand near the Columbia Slough, stole his employers shotgun and headed east. Not many more details are known, but the Multnomah County Sheriff was called and two men were deputized, one being the owner of the stolen gun a man named Roarke, and sent after Steele.

Sandy Oregon
Sandy Oregon

The deputies reached Eagle Creek and had to have their Multnomah County warrant re-issued in Clackamas County, where they learned that Steele had traded the shotgun for a Sharps rifle.They reached the town of Sandy where the weather turned bad. They stayed only long enough to buy a bottle of whiskey and then they went on their way. The two men reached the town of Salmon, near the present town of Brightwood where they met local resident John McIntyre who owned a trading post there. It was then that one of the deputies decided to return home as he became ill. At that time John McIntyre was deputized and the two men proceeded to travel east toward Summit Meadow.

Salmon Oregon
Salmon Oregon

Once the men reached Summit Meadow and Perry Vickers’ Summit House, Vickers advised them that Steele had stayed there the night before and he had judged him to be an unsavory character and said that he knew nothing of the gun theft. He also told them that he had mentioned that he was going to camp at White River, further to the north and east from where they were. Because the deputies had drank some of their whiskey Vickers told them that he would advise them to get some sleep and to proceed in the daytime. He also thought that they would be at a disadvantage in the dark. Roarke insisted that they push on into the night. Vickers told them that they would eat and then he would go with them after Steele.

With Vickers deputized the men mounted their horses and, because of his familiarity of the area, Vickers took the lead. The group made it to the White River Trading Post which was operated by a man named Gray and his family. It was there beyond the buildings that the men spotted a camp fire. They figured that it was Steele. Being concerned for the condition of his companions, and because he was equipped with a set of Colt Revolvers, Vickers volunteered to proceed toward the fire while the other two stood back to provide back up in case of trouble.

Vickers rode toward the campfire that would make the two horsemen barely visible in the background and confirmed that it was indeed Steele. Steele was aroused as Vickers approached and appeared to come forward to talk. Vickers went to dismount his horse and as he was in a helpless position Steele picked up the Sharps rifle and shot Vickers in the stomach. As he fell from the horse he grabbed one of his revolvers but didn’t get off a shot before Steele disappeared into the darkness of the night. Vickers emptied his revolvers into the night, thought that he hit Steele but this was never proven.

Cornelius Gray heard the gunshots from his trading post, grabbed his rifle and came running. Two other men who were at the trading post as well as the two deputies got to Vickers who was on the ground in agonizing pain and mortally wounded. They took Vickers inside Gray’s home.

Vickers claimed that he saw his companions come toward him, but not until after they drew away during the gunshots. The men claimed that their horses bolted from the shots. As he lay there he confronted the two men, say that they were too experienced with guns and horses to believe them and that he claimed them to be cowards, this account being from Cornelius Gray.

A rider was sent to get Stephen Coalman, Vickers best friend, but Vickers knew that he didn’t have much time. Vickers said that he had some laudanum at his place and that he had killed the pain in a lot of other people and he said that no one will be able to help him much. Vickers died before his friend could return.

Many of the locals from the era helped with his burial. Samuel Welch and Stephen Mitchell split the boards for his coffin. Oliver Yocum, the man who established the town of Government Camp officiated the ceremony. Perry Vickers was laid to rest in the little graveyard next to the baby Barclay, as were his last wishes. Their headstones can still be seen today at the west side of the meadow.

Stephen Coalman kept Vickers’ blood stained coveralls for years after with hope that they may be used as evidence to convict Steele of Vickers’ murder. A couple of years later a horse thief was hanged in eastern Oregon that claimed that he had killed a man in the Cascade Mountains. It was assumed that this was Steele. Not long after that Stephen Coalman burned Vickers coveralls, closing a chapter of an era on Mount Hood, and the case of Mount Hood’s first murder.

Protest at Timberline Lodge

Protest at Timberline Lodge – Unfair to skiers.

Timberline Lodge ‘s first Winter was a rocky one business wise.

“From W. P. Gray
The News-Telegram
Portland, Oregon
12-23-1937

Two months after its dedication by President Roosevelt, Timberline Lodge on Mt. Hood, Oregon, $650,000 structure built with WPA money, was picketed by skiers who demanded immediate opening of the lodge’s sanitary facilities to skiers. No operator has been found for the massive Alpine hostelry, and “keep out” signs bar all doors. A corporation of Portland business men is reportedly forming to open the lodge. The picketing skier above is Ken Soult.”

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